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Digestion is the breaking down of food
Respiration is the release of energy from food
Excretion is the removal of waste products of chemical reactions in the body
An antagonistic pair is made up of two muscles that cause opposite effects
Sensory nerves carry messages to the central nervous system. Motor nerves carry messages away from the central nervous system.
Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary.
Fertilisation is the joining of the sperm and the egg to form a zygote.
Implantation is the attachment of the embryo to the lining of the uterus
Pregnancy is the time the baby spends developing in the uterus
Contraception is the prevention of fertilisation
Genetics is the study of how traits or characteristics are inherited
A gene is a section of DNA that can produce a protein.
Invertebrates are animals that do not have backbones
Vertebrates are animals that have backbones
Transpiration is the loss of water from a plant
The transpiration stream is a flow of water from the roots up through the stem and out of the leaves of a plant
Photosynthesis is the way in which green plants make food.
A tropism is the change in growth of a plant in response to an outside stimulus.
Phototropism is the way a plant changes its growth response to light.
Geotropism is the way in which a plant changes its growth in response to gravity.
Sexual reproduction involves two sex cells joining together during fertilisation.
A gamete is a sex cell
Asexual reproduction means that new individuals are formed from only one parent.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from a stamen to a carpel.
Fertilisation is the joining of the male and female gametes to form a zygote.
Dispersal is the carrying of the seed as far as possible from the parent plant
Germination is the growth of a seed to form a new plant.
Ecology is the study of the relationships between plants, animals and their environments.
A habitat is where a plant or animal lives.
A population refers to all members of that particulars type of a plant or animal living in a habitat.
A community refers to all the plants and animals in that habitat
Producers are plants that make their own food.
Consumers are animals that get their food by eating plants or other animals
A food chain is a list of living things in which each one is eaten by the next one in the chain.
Adaptations are structures of habits that living things have which enable them to survive in their habitats.
Competition occurs when two of more organisms require something that is in short supply.
Interdependence means that living things depend on each other for survival.
A line transect is a rope marked at regular intervals and laid out across a habitat to estimate the number of plants present.
Conservation is the protection and wise management of our natural resources.
Pollution is any unwanted change to our environment.
Micro-organisms are small living things
A parasite is a living thing that gets its food from another living thing.
A saprophyte is a living thing that gets its food from dead sources.
Antibiotics are chemicals made by micro – organisms that kill or prevent the growth of bacteria.
Biotechnology is the use of living things or parts of living things to make useful products.
A mixture is made up of two or more substances mingled together but not chemically combined.
Elements are substances made up of only one type of atom.
Molecules are made up of two atoms chemically combined.
Compounds are made up of two or more elements chemically combined
Mixtures contains two or more different substances mingled together but not chemically combined.
Atomic number is the number of protons (or electrons) in an atom of an element.
Mass number is the number of protons and neutrons in an atom of an element.
Isotopes are atoms of the same element which have the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
An alloy is a mixture of metals
Corrosion is an undesirable process whereby a metal changes to its oxide or some other compound by combining with oxygen in air.
An ion is an atom which has lost or gained electrons.
An ionic bond is the electrical force of attraction between positive and negative ions.
A covalent bond consists of a pair of electrons shared between two atoms.
A physical change is a change in which no new substance is formed.
A chemical change is a change in which at least one new substance is formed.
A fuel is a substance that burns in oxygen to produce heat.
Catalysts are substances which alter the rate of a chemical reaction but are not used up themselves.
Electrolysis is the splitting up of a compound by passing electricity through it.
A solution is a mixture of a solute and a solvent.
A saturated solution is a solution that contains as much dissolved solute as possible at that given temperature.
Crystallisation is the formation of crystals by the cooling of a saturated solution.
Fuels are substances which burn in oxygen to produce heat energy.
Hydrocarbons are compounds made up of hydrogen and carbon.
Polymerisation is the process involving the joining together of many small molecules called monomers to form a large molecule called a polymer.
Length is the straight line distance between two points in space.
Mass is the quantity of matter in a body
Time is the quantity in which change happens.
Temperature is a measure of how hot or cold a body is.
Area is the amount of surface that covers a body.
Volume is the amount of space taken up by a body.
Area = length x width
Volume = length x width x height.
The density of a body is the mass of one unit of volume of a body.
Density = (mass / volume)
Speed is the distance travelled by an object in a unit of time
Velocity is the speed of a body and the direction in which it is moving.
Acceleration is the change in velocity in a unit of time.
Speed = distance / time.
Acceleration = change in velocity / time taken for the change.
A force gives a body at rest a velocity or makes a moving body change its velocity.
A force causes a mass to accelerate.
A change in velocity can be a change in speed or a change in direction or both.
Friction is a force that opposes the motion of a body when it is in contact with another
Lubrication is when a material is placed between surfaces of two moving bodies in contact, to reduce friction.
The weight of a body on the surface of the moon is the attraction between the moon and the body and this is different from the force on the earth.
The centre of gravity of a body is a point about which the turning effects caused by gravity are balanced. The weight of the body seems to be concentrated at this point.
A body is in equilibrium if its centre of gravity is not moving and the body is not turning about any point
A lever is a rigid body that can rotate about a fulcrum.
The turning effect of a force is called the moment of a force.
The law of the lever states that when a lever is balanced, the sum of the clockwise moments equals the sum of the anticlockwise moments.
Pressure is the amount of force acting on a unit area.
Work done = Force x distance moved in the direction of the force
Energy is the ability to do work
Power is the amount of work done in a unit of time.
Energy is neither created nor destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.
Heat is a form of energy
Temperature is a measure of the relative hotness or coldness of a body.
Increase in pressure raised the boiling point of water.
The heat that is needed to change the state of a substance is called latent heat.
Conduction is the transfer of heat through a substance without any overall movement of the substance itself.
Convection is the transfer of heat through liquids and gases by the mass movement of particles.
Radiation is the transfer of heat by means of waves that can travel through a vacuum. This is how the heat energy of the sun gets to the Earth.
Light is a form of energy because it is a wave and waves carry energy.
A luminous body creates its own light.
Non – luminous bodies reflect light.
The breaking up of white light into its different colours is called dispersion.
The spectrum of light is made up of seven major colours. Red orange yellow green blue indigo and violet.
Refraction is the bending of light as it passes from one transparent material to another.
Sound is a form of energy and is produced when bodies vibrate.
Sound needs a medium to be transmitted.
The speed of sound is much less than the speed of light.
A force something that changes the motion of a body.
A magnetic field is the region of space around a magnet in which certain materials and other magnets will experience a magnetic force.
A compass is a small magnet or a magnetised needle that is free to move in a protective case.
Charge exerts force on another charge.
Voltage = Resistance x Current or V = RI
Direct current is the flow of charge in only one direction around a circuit.
Alternating current is current that constantly changes direction.
A kilowatt – hour is the amount of energy provided when 1 kilowatt of power is used for one hour.
Cost = power rating in kW x unit cost x time in hours.
Electronics is the controlling of devices by directing small amounts of current around circuits.
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