• Abrasion: The wearing away, scouring action of a river/glacial load.
  • Active plate margin: The leading edge continent is at a plate margin.
  • Administration •: the management responsible for people living and working in a region.
  • Aeolian: Relating to wind action. Named after Greek god of winds, Aeolus.
  • Aerial photograph: A photograph of an area of the earth’s surface taken from an airplane,
  • Aftershock: Vibration after an earthquake as a result of the fault readjusting
  • Agglomeration: An extended city or town area. It is made up of the urban area and adjacent satellite towns.
  • Alluvium: A deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel left by flowing streams in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil.
  • Anticyclone: A high pressure system that brings settled weather
  • Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural produce of water (fish or shellfish)
  • Asthenosphere: The upper layer of the earth's mantle,
  • Atmosphere: The body of air and gas which surrounds the earth
  • Attrition: Rocks eroded by friction.
  • Barchans: Crescent-shaped sand dunes.
  • Basque region: Cultural region in France and Spain,
  • Batholith: Dome-shaped magma chamber or store below the crust.
  • Bedding planes: The surface which separates one layer of sedimentary rock from another
  • Benioff Zone: Fault plane where earthquakes happen.
  • Bilingual: An area where two languages are spoken.
  • Block mountain or Horst: Upland area where an elevated block of rock rises between faults
  • Bog burst: Top layer of bog starts to slide.
  • Boulder day: Rocks, sands and gravel deposited by melting ice.
  • Brain drain: Loss of intellectual and technical personnel from an area due to migration.
  • Caldera: A large basin-shaped volcanic depression, a volcanic collapsed crater.
  • Cartography: The art and science of making maps.
  • Cementation: Sediments are 'glued' together by natural glues like calcite and silica.
  • Cirque: Birthplace of a glacier. Steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain.
  • Climate: The average weather of an area over 30 to 35 years.
  • Coastline of emergence: is one which experiences a fall in sea level.
  • Coastline of submergence: is one 'which experiences a rise in sea level.
  • Commuter: A person who travels regularly from home in the suburbs to work in the dry.
  • Compaction: When deposition presses down on layers of sediment pushing most of the air and water out of it and pushing the particles closer together.
  • Continental crust: 30-70 km thick, made of granite, SIAL (silica/aluminium)
  • Continental drift: Continents are carried across the earth on plates.
  • Contour lines: Lines joining places of equal height on a map.
  • Conurbation: Large continuous network of cities that have merged.
  • Convection current: The transmission of heat from one part of the lithosphere to another by the movement of molten material.
  • Core: The central part of the earth. Made up of an inner (solid) and outer section.
  • Core region: Regions that develop stronger than others because of the availability of resource material and their strategic location.
  • Crater: Funnel-shaped hollow at the top of a volcanic cone.
  • Crust: Solid outer layer of the earth.
  • Culture: Knowledge, language, values, customs and material objects passed from generations in society.
  • Cultural geography: Study of human culture and its impact on the earth.
  • Decentralisation: The spread of power away from the centre to local governments.
  • Deflation hollow: Depression produced by wind erosion.
  • Delta: Area of alluvium deposited at a river mouth.
  • Départements: Regional administrative units of France, responsible for local services.
  • Depression: A low pressure system that brings unsettled weather.
  • Depopulation: Reduction in the number of inhabitants in an area,
  • Dolines: Bowl-shaped closed depressions in a .karst area.
  • Doming: Beds of rock slope away from a high central point.
  • Dripstone: Deposit of calcite in a cave by dripping, seeping or splashing water.
  • Dyke: A vertical or sloping layer of magma which goes across bedding planes.
  • Earthquake: A tremor of the earth's crust as a result of a release of energy.
  • Economic factors: Factors connected with jobs and money.
  • Economic geography: Study of the production and distribution of commodities.
  • Enclave: Enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the surrounding area.
  • Endogenic: Internal. Formed within the crust.
  • Epicentre: The point on the surface directly above the focus. Place of earthquake on crust.
  • Escarpment: Steep slope at the edge of a plateau.
  • Esker: Long ridge of post glacial deposition. Deposited by a stream of water from a melting glacier,
  • Exfoliation: Peeling of layers of rock.
  • Exogenic: External. Formed outside earth's crust.
  • Extractive industry: Examples: Quarrying and mining.
  • Fault: Fracture in the earth's crust. Vertical and horizontal movement.
  • Normal fault: hanging wall has moved downwards relative to footwall.
  • Reverse fault: hanging wall has moved upwards relative to footwall.
  • Tear/lateral fault: displacement along a line of fracture.
  • Faulting: Fracturing in the earth's crust caused by stress and tension.
  • Faultline: Fracture along the earth's crust.
  • Fjord: Drowned' glacial valley.
  • Flanders: Region of North France, Belgium and South West Netherlands.
  • Flora: Plant life in a region.
  • Fluvial: Refers to rivers and streams.
  • Focus: Actual place/location, origin., where an earthquake happens.
  • Foreshock: Vibration before an earthquake.
  • Folding: A curve in the rock layer.
  • Fronts: Zones of transition between two different air masses.
  • Frost action: A form of mechanical weathering.
  • Fumerole: Volcanic vent which emits gas or steam.
  • Gaeltacht: Any of the regions in Ireland where Irish is the major language.
  • Geographic Information System (GIS): A computerised system for the collection, storage and retrieval of geographic data.
  • Geomorphology: Study to explain features fourid and processes operating upon the surface of the earth.
  • Geyser: Hot spring which ejects hot water and steam into the air.
  • Glaciology: Study of the formation and behaviour of glaciers.
  • Gleys: Soil developed 'with poor drainage.
  • Gondwanaland: The earth's southern landmass when Pangaea divided,
  • Green belt: An area of protected countryside around urban areas.
  • Green Revolution: Crop improvements developed after World War II, includes the use of genetic strains.
  • Grid North: The north that is based on the grid lines on the map.
  • Grid reference: Made up of a subzone letter and an easting and northing co-ordinate.
  • Growth centre: Development that grows into the hinterland.
  • Hinterland: Land or district behind that bordering on a coast or river.
  • Hot spots: Volcanic activity away from plate boundaries as a result of a plume. Hot spots can form a chain of volcanic islands, e.g. Canary Islands.
  • Human geography: Study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction.
  • Hydraulic action: V/eight and speed of river on the bed and banks of the river.
  • Hydrothermal areas: Hot springs, mudpools or geyers created by cooling magma.
  • Igneous rock: Rock produced by the action of heat within the earth.
  • Immigration: Settlers corning into a country.
  • Irrigation: Artificial supply of water to the land.
  • Island Arc: Curved chain of islands.
  • Isostatic: Equilibrium in the earth's crust.
  • Isotherm: Lines of equal temperature on a map.
  • Joints: A crack or fissure in a mass of rock with no movement taking place.
  • Jokulhlaups: Volcanic eruptions under ice caps may cause sudden melting.
  • Karst: A landscape composed of limestone features.
  • Knickpoint: Sudden change in a river's gradient point where the river suddenly begins to flow in a steeper course.
  • Laccolith: A dome shaped intrusion of magma below the crust.
  • Lahars: A flow of volcanic mud formed by a mix of volcanic ash and water .
  • Lapolith: A bowl-shaped magma chamber beneath the surface.
  • Latitude: Imaginary line around the earth, parallel to the equator.
  • Leaching: Liquid percolating or sinking through the soil.
  • Levees: A natural embankment along the river bank.
  • Lithification: Process that converts a sediment into a sedimentary rock by compaction or cementation.
  • Longshore drift: Movement of sand parallel to the shoreline.
  • Longitude: Imaginary line passing through the north and south poles at right angle to the equator.
  • Landforms: Features that are created by erosion, deposition or transport processes.
  • Laurasia: The earth's northern landmass when Pangaea divided.
  • Lava: Magma that flows from the earth's interior to the earth's surface.
  • Lithosphere: A rigid unit formed from the crust and upper part of the mantle. It is made up ofa mosaic of plates.
  • Magnetic North: The point to which the needle of a magnetic compass turns.
  • Mantle: A layer of rack below the crust. It is partially molten and able to flow.
  • Map: A graphic representation of the earth's surface.
  • Map legend: Map key to symbols found on map.
  • Massif Central: An area in France with high altitude, agricultural region with outward migration and industrial decline.
  • Mass wasting or mass movement: Process by which material moves downslope.
  • Megalopolis: Large urban complex made up of several cities and towns.
  • Mercalli Scale: Degree of destruction by an earthquake.
  • Metamorphic: Changing in form of minerals or rocks.
  • Microclimate: Climate of a small localised area. Differs from general climate.
  • Moho: Mohorovicic layer - it is the boundary between the crust and mantle.
  • Molten rock or Magma: Found in the earth's interior. If it cools it forms igneous rocks.
  • Monsoon: Rainy season in southern Asia.
  • Multinational corporation: Company involved in many nations or nationalities.
  • National Grid: Co-ordinate system on a map that can locate any feature.
  • Northing: Grid reference numbers at the side of a map.
  • Oceanic crust: 5-10 Ian thick: made of basalt.
  • Okta: An eighth of the sky covered in cloud.
  • Overfishing: Extensive fishing that poses a threat to many species of fish.
  • Pangaea or Supercontinent: When the continents formed one single landmass.
  • Parasitic cone: Secondary volcanic vent.
  • Periglacial: Places at the edge of past glacial areas.
  • Peripheral: Area which lacks resources and has a marginal location, unfavourable environment, poor access to routes and market centres, limited jobs, a low standard of living, few urban centres, inadequate services and dependent on primary activities.
  • Plates: Large slabs of solid rocks which make up a mosaic on the earth's crust.
  • Plume: Where magma rises from the mantle and erupts onto the surface as a volcano.
  • Plutonic feature: Intrusive feature formed within the earth's surface.
  • Podzols: Soil low in humus.
  • Politics: Study of power relations in the world.
  • Polycentres: Several cities close to each other.
  • Precipitation: Moisture that falls from the atmosphere to the earth's surface.
  • Prevailing wind: Predominant wind direction.
  • Primary activity: Agriculture, fishing, forestry, extraction of mineral resources.
  • Primate city: A city that is more than twice as big as the next largest city in a country.
  • Pyroclasts: Volcanic eruptions of ash, cinders or bombs.
  • Recrystallisation: Rearrangement of the crystal structure of existing minerals.
  • Redevelopment: Change in land usage from its present function.
  • Region: An area with boundaries. It is the basic unit of study in geography.
  • Rejuvenation: Development of youthful topographic features.
  • Renewal: Urban regeneration, restoring or replacing buildings in an urban area.
  • Ria: Drowned river valley.
  • Richter Scale: Measures magnitude (size)/intensity of an earthquake.
  • Rift: A fracture or crack in the earth's crust caused by an extension of the crust.
  • Rift valley or Graben: An elongated valley formed by the depression of a block of the earth's crust between two parallel faults.
  • River capture: When a river or stream captures or intercepts part of another.
  • Rock: Mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter.
  • Rural: Relating to the countryside.
  • Satellite image: Image presenting information taken from a distance.
  • Scale: Relationship between a distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the ground.
  • Sea floor spreading: The widening of the ocean floor due to the splitting of plates.
  • Sedimentary: Forms from mineral fragments deposited by wind, water or glacier.
  • Separatism: Desire to be politically independent.
  • Seif: Parallel ridges of sand.
  • Seismic waves or tremors: Earthquake vibrations.
  • Seismograph: Instrument to measure intensity of earthquake/earth tremors.
  • Seismology: Study of earthquakes.
  • Shield volcano: A volcano in the shape of a flattened dome, broad and low, built by flows of fluid lava.
  • Social: Concerned with human society.
  • Solifluction: Type of mass wasting - found where ground is permanently frozen.
  • Solution: Dissolving of minerals within the rock.
  • Sovereignty: Government free from external control.
  • Silica: A mineral formed from silicon and 'oxygen,
  • High silica content: magma is thick as gas is trapped.
  • Low silica content: magma is thin and runny as gas escapes.
  • Sill: A horizontal layer where magma forced it way between bedding planes.
  • Sinkhole: (Slugga) A place where a river disappears underground in a limestone region.
  • Site: The physical location of a place.
  • Situation: The location of a place based upon its relation to other places.
  • Synoptic chart: A map which shows weather conditions.
  • Snowline: Lower limit of permanent snow.
  • Strainmeter: Measures stresses in the crust.
  • Strata: Layers. Successive strata are separated by a bedding plane.
  • Subduction zone: Region where a plate descends under another plate.
  • Tertiary activity: Services such as transport, banking or retail.
  • Terranes: Upper skin of subducting plates, where there is an accumulation of material.
  • Tectonic:The deformation forces acting on the earth's crust.
  • Tectonic Cycle: The movement of the plates and the resulting effects of these movements.
  • Thrust fault: Pressure which pushes rock forward and increases the width of a mountain.
  • Tiltmeters: Instrument used to detect ground swelling/movement.
  • Tombolo: Deposition landform between land and island.
  • Topography: Shape of the surface, including relief and features.
  • True North: All lines of longitude are true north.
  • Turlough: Seasonal lake due to the water line variations.
  • Tsunami: A large sea wave caused by an earthquake. Tidal wave.
  • Urban: Relating to a city or densely populated area.
  • Vent: Opening in the crust through which volcanic material erupts.
  • Volcanic arc: A line of volcanoes along a plate margin above a subduction zone.
  • Volcanic stages: Active, extinct and dormant.
  • Volcanic plugs: When lava cools in the vent. Made of basalt rock.
  • Volcano: A vent in the crust through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt.
  • Volcanology: Study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related matters.

     

  • Weather: The day to day condition of the atmosphere.
  • Weather front: Boundary between two air masses.
  • Weathering: The breakdown of material through biological, chemical or mechanical means.
  • Yardangs: Rock ridge caused by wind erosion, parallel to prevailing wind.
  • Zeugens: Rock perpendicular to the prevailing wind.

Other terms

  • BMW: Borders, Midlands and Western Region (of Ireland)
  • CFP: Common Fisheries Policy
  • CFSP: Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • EEC: European Economic Community
  • ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community
  • EMU: Economic and Monetary Union
  • ETA: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Separatist group in Spain)
  • EU: European Union
  • FRG: Federal Republic of Germany
  • GDA: Greater Dublin Area
  • GDR German Democratic Republic
  • NAD: North Atlantic Drift: (warm oceanic current)
  • NDP: National Development Plan. It has regions for the administration of the Regional
  • Authority Areas plan called Borders, Midlands and Western Region (BMW) and Southern and Eastern Region.
  • NSS: National Spatial Strategy
  • SEM: Single European Market