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The wearing away, scouring action of a river/glacial load.
Active plate margin:
The leading edge continent is at a plate margin.
the management responsible for people living and working in a region.
Relating to wind action. Named after Greek god of winds, Aeolus.
A photograph of an area of the earth’s surface taken from an airplane,
Vibration after an earthquake as a result of the fault readjusting
An extended city or town area. It is made up of the urban area and adjacent satellite towns.
A deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel left by flowing streams in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil.
A high pressure system that brings settled weather
Cultivation of natural produce of water (fish or shellfish)
The upper layer of the earth's mantle,
The body of air and gas which surrounds the earth
Rocks eroded by friction.
Crescent-shaped sand dunes.
Cultural region in France and Spain,
Dome-shaped magma chamber or store below the crust.
The surface which separates one layer of sedimentary rock from another
Fault plane where earthquakes happen.
An area where two languages are spoken.
Block mountain or Horst:
Upland area where an elevated block of rock rises between faults
Top layer of bog starts to slide.
Rocks, sands and gravel deposited by melting ice.
Loss of intellectual and technical personnel from an area due to migration.
A large basin-shaped volcanic depression, a volcanic collapsed crater.
The art and science of making maps.
Sediments are 'glued' together by natural glues like calcite and silica.
Birthplace of a glacier. Steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain.
The average weather of an area over 30 to 35 years.
Coastline of emergence:
is one which experiences a fall in sea level.
Coastline of submergence:
is one 'which experiences a rise in sea level.
A person who travels regularly from home in the suburbs to work in the dry.
When deposition presses down on layers of sediment pushing most of the air and water out of it and pushing the particles closer together.
30-70 km thick, made of granite, SIAL (silica/aluminium)
Continents are carried across the earth on plates.
Lines joining places of equal height on a map.
Large continuous network of cities that have merged.
The transmission of heat from one part of the lithosphere to another by the movement of molten material.
The central part of the earth. Made up of an inner (solid) and outer section.
Regions that develop stronger than others because of the availability of resource material and their strategic location.
Funnel-shaped hollow at the top of a volcanic cone.
Solid outer layer of the earth.
Knowledge, language, values, customs and material objects passed from generations in society.
Study of human culture and its impact on the earth.
The spread of power away from the centre to local governments.
Depression produced by wind erosion.
Area of alluvium deposited at a river mouth.
Regional administrative units of France, responsible for local services.
A low pressure system that brings unsettled weather.
Reduction in the number of inhabitants in an area,
Bowl-shaped closed depressions in a .karst area.
Beds of rock slope away from a high central point.
Deposit of calcite in a cave by dripping, seeping or splashing water.
A vertical or sloping layer of magma which goes across bedding planes.
A tremor of the earth's crust as a result of a release of energy.
Factors connected with jobs and money.
Study of the production and distribution of commodities.
Enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the surrounding area.
Internal. Formed within the crust.
The point on the surface directly above the focus. Place of earthquake on crust.
Steep slope at the edge of a plateau.
Long ridge of post glacial deposition. Deposited by a stream of water from a melting glacier,
Peeling of layers of rock.
External. Formed outside earth's crust.
Examples: Quarrying and mining.
Fracture in the earth's crust. Vertical and horizontal movement.
hanging wall has moved downwards relative to footwall.
hanging wall has moved upwards relative to footwall.
displacement along a line of fracture.
Fracturing in the earth's crust caused by stress and tension.
Fracture along the earth's crust.
Drowned' glacial valley.
Region of North France, Belgium and South West Netherlands.
Plant life in a region.
Refers to rivers and streams.
Actual place/location, origin., where an earthquake happens.
Vibration before an earthquake.
A curve in the rock layer.
Zones of transition between two different air masses.
A form of mechanical weathering.
Volcanic vent which emits gas or steam.
Any of the regions in Ireland where Irish is the major language.
Geographic Information System (GIS):
A computerised system for the collection, storage and retrieval of geographic data.
Study to explain features fourid and processes operating upon the surface of the earth.
Hot spring which ejects hot water and steam into the air.
Study of the formation and behaviour of glaciers.
Soil developed 'with poor drainage.
The earth's southern landmass when Pangaea divided,
An area of protected countryside around urban areas.
Crop improvements developed after World War II, includes the use of genetic strains.
The north that is based on the grid lines on the map.
Made up of a subzone letter and an easting and northing co-ordinate.
Development that grows into the hinterland.
Land or district behind that bordering on a coast or river.
Volcanic activity away from plate boundaries as a result of a plume. Hot spots can form a chain of volcanic islands, e.g. Canary Islands.
Study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction.
V/eight and speed of river on the bed and banks of the river.
Hot springs, mudpools or geyers created by cooling magma.
Rock produced by the action of heat within the earth.
Settlers corning into a country.
Artificial supply of water to the land.
Curved chain of islands.
Equilibrium in the earth's crust.
Lines of equal temperature on a map.
A crack or fissure in a mass of rock with no movement taking place.
Volcanic eruptions under ice caps may cause sudden melting.
A landscape composed of limestone features.
Sudden change in a river's gradient point where the river suddenly begins to flow in a steeper course.
A dome shaped intrusion of magma below the crust.
A flow of volcanic mud formed by a mix of volcanic ash and water .
A bowl-shaped magma chamber beneath the surface.
Imaginary line around the earth, parallel to the equator.
Liquid percolating or sinking through the soil.
A natural embankment along the river bank.
Process that converts a sediment into a sedimentary rock by compaction or cementation.
Movement of sand parallel to the shoreline.
Imaginary line passing through the north and south poles at right angle to the equator.
Features that are created by erosion, deposition or transport processes.
The earth's northern landmass when Pangaea divided.
Magma that flows from the earth's interior to the earth's surface.
A rigid unit formed from the crust and upper part of the mantle. It is made up ofa mosaic of plates.
The point to which the needle of a magnetic compass turns.
A layer of rack below the crust. It is partially molten and able to flow.
A graphic representation of the earth's surface.
Map key to symbols found on map.
An area in France with high altitude, agricultural region with outward migration and industrial decline.
Mass wasting or mass movement:
Process by which material moves downslope.
Large urban complex made up of several cities and towns.
Degree of destruction by an earthquake.
Changing in form of minerals or rocks.
Climate of a small localised area. Differs from general climate.
Moho: Mohorovicic layer
- it is the boundary between the crust and mantle.
Molten rock or Magma:
Found in the earth's interior. If it cools it forms igneous rocks.
Rainy season in southern Asia.
Company involved in many nations or nationalities.
Co-ordinate system on a map that can locate any feature.
Grid reference numbers at the side of a map.
5-10 Ian thick: made of basalt.
An eighth of the sky covered in cloud.
Extensive fishing that poses a threat to many species of fish.
Pangaea or Supercontinent:
When the continents formed one single landmass.
Secondary volcanic vent.
Places at the edge of past glacial areas.
Area which lacks resources and has a marginal location, unfavourable environment, poor access to routes and market centres, limited jobs, a low standard of living, few urban centres, inadequate services and dependent on primary activities.
Large slabs of solid rocks which make up a mosaic on the earth's crust.
Where magma rises from the mantle and erupts onto the surface as a volcano.
Intrusive feature formed within the earth's surface.
Soil low in humus.
Study of power relations in the world.
Several cities close to each other.
from the atmosphere to the earth's surface.
Predominant wind direction.
Agriculture, fishing, forestry, extraction of mineral resources.
A city that is more than twice as big as the next largest city in a country.
Volcanic eruptions of ash, cinders or bombs.
Rearrangement of the crystal structure of existing minerals.
Change in land usage from its present function.
An area with boundaries. It is the basic unit of study in geography.
Development of youthful topographic features.
Urban regeneration, restoring or replacing buildings in an urban area.
Drowned river valley.
Measures magnitude (size)/intensity of an earthquake.
A fracture or crack in the earth's crust caused by an extension of the crust.
Rift valley or Graben:
An elongated valley formed by the depression of a block of the earth's crust between two parallel faults.
When a river or stream captures or intercepts part of another.
Mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter.
Relating to the countryside.
Image presenting information taken from a distance.
Relationship between a distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the ground.
Sea floor spreading:
The widening of the ocean floor due to the splitting of plates.
Forms from mineral fragments deposited by wind, water or glacier.
Desire to be politically independent.
Parallel ridges of sand.
Seismic waves or tremors:
Instrument to measure intensity of earthquake/earth tremors.
Study of earthquakes.
A volcano in the shape of a flattened dome, broad and low, built by flows of fluid lava.
Concerned with human society.
Type of mass wasting - found where ground is permanently frozen.
Dissolving of minerals within the rock.
Government free from external control.
A mineral formed from silicon and 'oxygen,
High silica content:
magma is thick as gas is trapped.
Low silica content:
magma is thin and runny as gas escapes.
A horizontal layer where magma forced it way between bedding planes.
(Slugga) A place where a river disappears underground in a limestone region.
The physical location of a place.
The location of a place based upon its relation to other places.
A map which shows weather conditions.
Lower limit of permanent snow.
Measures stresses in the crust.
. Successive strata are separated by a bedding plane.
Region where a plate descends under another plate.
Services such as transport, banking or retail.
Upper skin of subducting plates, where there is an accumulation of material.
The deformation forces acting on the earth's crust.
The movement of the plates and the resulting effects of these movements.
Pressure which pushes rock forward and increases the width of a mountain.
Instrument used to detect ground swelling/movement.
Deposition landform between land and island.
Shape of the surface, including relief and features.
All lines of longitude are true north.
Seasonal lake due to the water line variations.
A large sea wave caused by an earthquake. Tidal wave.
: Relating to a city or densely populated area.
Opening in the crust through which volcanic material erupts.
: A line of volcanoes along a plate margin above a subduction zone.
Active, extinct and dormant.
When lava cools in the vent. Made of basalt rock.
A vent in the crust through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt.
Study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related matters.
The day to day condition of the atmosphere.
Boundary between two air masses.
The breakdown of material through biological, chemical or mechanical means.
: Rock ridge caused by wind erosion, parallel to prevailing wind.
Rock perpendicular to the prevailing wind.
Borders, Midlands and Western Region (of Ireland)
Common Fisheries Policy
Common Foreign and Security Policy
European Economic Community
: European Coal and Steel Community
Economic and Monetary Union
Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Separatist group in Spain)
Federal Republic of Germany
Greater Dublin Area
German Democratic Republic
North Atlantic Drift: (warm oceanic current)
National Development Plan. It has regions for the administration of the Regional
Authority Areas plan called Borders, Midlands and Western Region (BMW) and Southern and Eastern Region.
National Spatial Strategy
Single European Market
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