• Autotroph: Aliving organism that makes its own complex organic matter from simple inorganic substances.
  • Heterotroph: a living organism that obtains its nutrients by consuming complex organic matter it cannot make its own food. All animals and fungi are heterotrophs. Most bacteria are heterotrophs.
  • Excretion: is the removal of the waste products of metabolism from the living organism.
  • Sensitivity: the ability of an organism to detect changes in its external and internal environment and make adaptive alterations to its activities that enhance its chances of survival and reproduction.
  • Reproduction: is the formation of a new living organism of the same species.
  • Movement: the purposeful alteration of posture or position in response to a change in the internal or external environment of the organism.
  • Biological growth: involves increase in cell size and increase in cell number.
  • A biochemical: is an organic substance produced by a living organism and has an important role in a metabolism.
  • Ecology: the study of the home of living organisms, their interactions with each other and their abiotic environments.
  • Habitat: the place where an organism lives and to which it is adapted.
  • Population: a group of individuals of the same species living and interbreeding in the same habitat
  • Ecosystem: a self sustaining community of a organism and their abiotic environment. There is a great diversity of ecosystems: grassland, freshwater pond, hedgerow, forest, sea shore, woodland.
  • Niche: the role a species plays in the dynamic integrated ecosystem. A species’ niche is a full description is a full description of how it is suited to the habitat, fits into the community and how it affects and is affected by abiotic and biotic factors. A species’ niche include where it lives, when it is active, what it feeds on, what feeds on it and its tolerance range for each abiotic factor.
  • Biosphere: the part of the Earth including the atmosphere inhabited by living organisms.
  • Abiotic factors: features of the non-living environment that influence the community.
  • Autotrophs: organisms that can make their own food from inorganic sources.
  • Heterotrophs: organisms that cannot make their own food.
  • Food chain: a list of species each serving as a food source for the next species in the list; a specific pathway along which food (chemical energy) flows in the community.
  • Trophic: level is the position of a species in a food chain is its trophic level.
  • Pyramid of numbers: a modified bar chart showing the number of individuals at each trophic level of a specific food chain.
  • Food web:  A chart that shows the complex feeding relationships in a community.
  • Biotic factors:influences of organisms on each other.
  • Competition: the struggle between individuals of the same or different species for essential limited resources.
  • Predation: the killing of one animal by another for food. A predator is an animal that hunts and kills another animal the prey for food.
  • Symbosis: individuals of two or more species living in close association with each other where there is a benefit and loss for at least one of the specie