Leaving Cert Geography

Leaving Cert Geography helpful information:

General Information

Subject Overview

Geography is concerned with the study of people and their environment. The subject will help students develop an understanding of the changing relationships between the physical and human worlds. Through their study of geography, students will develop geographical skills that will help them to make informed judgements about issues at local, national and international levels.

Content

Leaving Certificate geography may be studied at Ordinary or Higher level. The course is divided into core, elective and optional units of study. Students are expected to develop important geographical skills as they study these units.

Core Units
1. Patterns and processes in the physical environment
2. Regional geography
3. The Geographical Investigation and skills unit

Elective Units
4. Patterns and processes in economic activities
5. Patterns and processes in the human environment

Optional Units
6. Global interdependence
7. Geoecology
8. Culture and identity
9. The atmosphere-ocean environment

Ordinary level students study all core units and one of the elective units. Higher level students study all core units, one of the elective units and one of the optional units.

Assessment

Leaving Certificate Geography is assessed at Ordinary and Higher level in ascending order of difficulty. There are two assessment components:

  • Examination paper 80%
  • Report on a Geographical Investigation 20%
Download Past State Exam Papers
Download Past State Exam Papers by Topic
Definitions
  • Abrasion: The wearing away, scouring action of a river/glacial load.
  • Active plate margin: The leading edge continent is at a plate margin.
  • Administration •: the management responsible for people living and working in a region.
  • Aeolian: Relating to wind action. Named after Greek god of winds, Aeolus.
  • Aerial photograph: A photograph of an area of the earth’s surface taken from an airplane,
  • Aftershock: Vibration after an earthquake as a result of the fault readjusting
  • Agglomeration: An extended city or town area. It is made up of the urban area and adjacent satellite towns.
  • Alluvium: A deposit of clay, silt, sand, and gravel left by flowing streams in a river valley or delta, typically producing fertile soil.
  • Anticyclone: A high pressure system that brings settled weather
  • Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural produce of water (fish or shellfish)
  • Asthenosphere: The upper layer of the earth's mantle,
  • Atmosphere: The body of air and gas which surrounds the earth
  • Attrition: Rocks eroded by friction.
  • Barchans: Crescent-shaped sand dunes.
  • Basque region: Cultural region in France and Spain,
  • Batholith: Dome-shaped magma chamber or store below the crust.
  • Bedding planes: The surface which separates one layer of sedimentary rock from another
  • Benioff Zone: Fault plane where earthquakes happen.
  • Bilingual: An area where two languages are spoken.
  • Block mountain or Horst: Upland area where an elevated block of rock rises between faults
  • Bog burst: Top layer of bog starts to slide.
  • Boulder day: Rocks, sands and gravel deposited by melting ice.
  • Brain drain: Loss of intellectual and technical personnel from an area due to migration.
  • Caldera: A large basin-shaped volcanic depression, a volcanic collapsed crater.
  • Cartography: The art and science of making maps.
  • Cementation: Sediments are 'glued' together by natural glues like calcite and silica.
  • Cirque: Birthplace of a glacier. Steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain.
  • Climate: The average weather of an area over 30 to 35 years.
  • Coastline of emergence: is one which experiences a fall in sea level.
  • Coastline of submergence: is one 'which experiences a rise in sea level.
  • Commuter: A person who travels regularly from home in the suburbs to work in the dry.
  • Compaction: When deposition presses down on layers of sediment pushing most of the air and water out of it and pushing the particles closer together.
  • Continental crust: 30-70 km thick, made of granite, SIAL (silica/aluminium)
  • Continental drift: Continents are carried across the earth on plates.
  • Contour lines: Lines joining places of equal height on a map.
  • Conurbation: Large continuous network of cities that have merged.
  • Convection current: The transmission of heat from one part of the lithosphere to another by the movement of molten material.
  • Core: The central part of the earth. Made up of an inner (solid) and outer section.
  • Core region: Regions that develop stronger than others because of the availability of resource material and their strategic location.
  • Crater: Funnel-shaped hollow at the top of a volcanic cone.
  • Crust: Solid outer layer of the earth.
  • Culture: Knowledge, language, values, customs and material objects passed from generations in society.
  • Cultural geography: Study of human culture and its impact on the earth.
  • Decentralisation: The spread of power away from the centre to local governments.
  • Deflation hollow: Depression produced by wind erosion.
  • Delta: Area of alluvium deposited at a river mouth.
  • Départements: Regional administrative units of France, responsible for local services.
  • Depression: A low pressure system that brings unsettled weather.
  • Depopulation: Reduction in the number of inhabitants in an area,
  • Dolines: Bowl-shaped closed depressions in a .karst area.
  • Doming: Beds of rock slope away from a high central point.
  • Dripstone: Deposit of calcite in a cave by dripping, seeping or splashing water.
  • Dyke: A vertical or sloping layer of magma which goes across bedding planes.
  • Earthquake: A tremor of the earth's crust as a result of a release of energy.
  • Economic factors: Factors connected with jobs and money.
  • Economic geography: Study of the production and distribution of commodities.
  • Enclave: Enclosed territory that is culturally distinct from the surrounding area.
  • Endogenic: Internal. Formed within the crust.
  • Epicentre: The point on the surface directly above the focus. Place of earthquake on crust.
  • Escarpment: Steep slope at the edge of a plateau.
  • Esker: Long ridge of post glacial deposition. Deposited by a stream of water from a melting glacier,
  • Exfoliation: Peeling of layers of rock.
  • Exogenic: External. Formed outside earth's crust.
  • Extractive industry: Examples: Quarrying and mining.
  • Fault: Fracture in the earth's crust. Vertical and horizontal movement.
  • Normal fault: hanging wall has moved downwards relative to footwall.
  • Reverse fault: hanging wall has moved upwards relative to footwall.
  • Tear/lateral fault: displacement along a line of fracture.
  • Faulting: Fracturing in the earth's crust caused by stress and tension.
  • Faultline: Fracture along the earth's crust.
  • Fjord: Drowned' glacial valley.
  • Flanders: Region of North France, Belgium and South West Netherlands.
  • Flora: Plant life in a region.
  • Fluvial: Refers to rivers and streams.
  • Focus: Actual place/location, origin., where an earthquake happens.
  • Foreshock: Vibration before an earthquake.
  • Folding: A curve in the rock layer.
  • Fronts: Zones of transition between two different air masses.
  • Frost action: A form of mechanical weathering.
  • Fumerole: Volcanic vent which emits gas or steam.
  • Gaeltacht: Any of the regions in Ireland where Irish is the major language.
  • Geographic Information System (GIS): A computerised system for the collection, storage and retrieval of geographic data.
  • Geomorphology: Study to explain features fourid and processes operating upon the surface of the earth.
  • Geyser: Hot spring which ejects hot water and steam into the air.
  • Glaciology: Study of the formation and behaviour of glaciers.
  • Gleys: Soil developed 'with poor drainage.
  • Gondwanaland: The earth's southern landmass when Pangaea divided,
  • Green belt: An area of protected countryside around urban areas.
  • Green Revolution: Crop improvements developed after World War II, includes the use of genetic strains.
  • Grid North: The north that is based on the grid lines on the map.
  • Grid reference: Made up of a subzone letter and an easting and northing co-ordinate.
  • Growth centre: Development that grows into the hinterland.
  • Hinterland: Land or district behind that bordering on a coast or river.
  • Hot spots: Volcanic activity away from plate boundaries as a result of a plume. Hot spots can form a chain of volcanic islands, e.g. Canary Islands.
  • Human geography: Study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction.
  • Hydraulic action: V/eight and speed of river on the bed and banks of the river.
  • Hydrothermal areas: Hot springs, mudpools or geyers created by cooling magma.
  • Igneous rock: Rock produced by the action of heat within the earth.
  • Immigration: Settlers corning into a country.
  • Irrigation: Artificial supply of water to the land.
  • Island Arc: Curved chain of islands.
  • Isostatic: Equilibrium in the earth's crust.
  • Isotherm: Lines of equal temperature on a map.
  • Joints: A crack or fissure in a mass of rock with no movement taking place.
  • Jokulhlaups: Volcanic eruptions under ice caps may cause sudden melting.
  • Karst: A landscape composed of limestone features.
  • Knickpoint: Sudden change in a river's gradient point where the river suddenly begins to flow in a steeper course.
  • Laccolith: A dome shaped intrusion of magma below the crust.
  • Lahars: A flow of volcanic mud formed by a mix of volcanic ash and water .
  • Lapolith: A bowl-shaped magma chamber beneath the surface.
  • Latitude: Imaginary line around the earth, parallel to the equator.
  • Leaching: Liquid percolating or sinking through the soil.
  • Levees: A natural embankment along the river bank.
  • Lithification: Process that converts a sediment into a sedimentary rock by compaction or cementation.
  • Longshore drift: Movement of sand parallel to the shoreline.
  • Longitude: Imaginary line passing through the north and south poles at right angle to the equator.
  • Landforms: Features that are created by erosion, deposition or transport processes.
  • Laurasia: The earth's northern landmass when Pangaea divided.
  • Lava: Magma that flows from the earth's interior to the earth's surface.
  • Lithosphere: A rigid unit formed from the crust and upper part of the mantle. It is made up ofa mosaic of plates.
  • Magnetic North: The point to which the needle of a magnetic compass turns.
  • Mantle: A layer of rack below the crust. It is partially molten and able to flow.
  • Map: A graphic representation of the earth's surface.
  • Map legend: Map key to symbols found on map.
  • Massif Central: An area in France with high altitude, agricultural region with outward migration and industrial decline.
  • Mass wasting or mass movement: Process by which material moves downslope.
  • Megalopolis: Large urban complex made up of several cities and towns.
  • Mercalli Scale: Degree of destruction by an earthquake.
  • Metamorphic: Changing in form of minerals or rocks.
  • Microclimate: Climate of a small localised area. Differs from general climate.
  • Moho: Mohorovicic layer - it is the boundary between the crust and mantle.
  • Molten rock or Magma: Found in the earth's interior. If it cools it forms igneous rocks.
  • Monsoon: Rainy season in southern Asia.
  • Multinational corporation: Company involved in many nations or nationalities.
  • National Grid: Co-ordinate system on a map that can locate any feature.
  • Northing: Grid reference numbers at the side of a map.
  • Oceanic crust: 5-10 Ian thick: made of basalt.
  • Okta: An eighth of the sky covered in cloud.
  • Overfishing: Extensive fishing that poses a threat to many species of fish.
  • Pangaea or Supercontinent: When the continents formed one single landmass.
  • Parasitic cone: Secondary volcanic vent.
  • Periglacial: Places at the edge of past glacial areas.
  • Peripheral: Area which lacks resources and has a marginal location, unfavourable environment, poor access to routes and market centres, limited jobs, a low standard of living, few urban centres, inadequate services and dependent on primary activities.
  • Plates: Large slabs of solid rocks which make up a mosaic on the earth's crust.
  • Plume: Where magma rises from the mantle and erupts onto the surface as a volcano.
  • Plutonic feature: Intrusive feature formed within the earth's surface.
  • Podzols: Soil low in humus.
  • Politics: Study of power relations in the world.
  • Polycentres: Several cities close to each other.
  • Precipitation: Moisture that falls from the atmosphere to the earth's surface.
  • Prevailing wind: Predominant wind direction.
  • Primary activity: Agriculture, fishing, forestry, extraction of mineral resources.
  • Primate city: A city that is more than twice as big as the next largest city in a country.
  • Pyroclasts: Volcanic eruptions of ash, cinders or bombs.
  • Recrystallisation: Rearrangement of the crystal structure of existing minerals.
  • Redevelopment: Change in land usage from its present function.
  • Region: An area with boundaries. It is the basic unit of study in geography.
  • Rejuvenation: Development of youthful topographic features.
  • Renewal: Urban regeneration, restoring or replacing buildings in an urban area.
  • Ria: Drowned river valley.
  • Richter Scale: Measures magnitude (size)/intensity of an earthquake.
  • Rift: A fracture or crack in the earth's crust caused by an extension of the crust.
  • Rift valley or Graben: An elongated valley formed by the depression of a block of the earth's crust between two parallel faults.
  • River capture: When a river or stream captures or intercepts part of another.
  • Rock: Mixture of one or more minerals and organic matter.
  • Rural: Relating to the countryside.
  • Satellite image: Image presenting information taken from a distance.
  • Scale: Relationship between a distance on the map and the corresponding distance on the ground.
  • Sea floor spreading: The widening of the ocean floor due to the splitting of plates.
  • Sedimentary: Forms from mineral fragments deposited by wind, water or glacier.
  • Separatism: Desire to be politically independent.
  • Seif: Parallel ridges of sand.
  • Seismic waves or tremors: Earthquake vibrations.
  • Seismograph: Instrument to measure intensity of earthquake/earth tremors.
  • Seismology: Study of earthquakes.
  • Shield volcano: A volcano in the shape of a flattened dome, broad and low, built by flows of fluid lava.
  • Social: Concerned with human society.
  • Solifluction: Type of mass wasting - found where ground is permanently frozen.
  • Solution: Dissolving of minerals within the rock.
  • Sovereignty: Government free from external control.
  • Silica: A mineral formed from silicon and 'oxygen,
  • High silica content: magma is thick as gas is trapped.
  • Low silica content: magma is thin and runny as gas escapes.
  • Sill: A horizontal layer where magma forced it way between bedding planes.
  • Sinkhole: (Slugga) A place where a river disappears underground in a limestone region.
  • Site: The physical location of a place.
  • Situation: The location of a place based upon its relation to other places.
  • Synoptic chart: A map which shows weather conditions.
  • Snowline: Lower limit of permanent snow.
  • Strainmeter: Measures stresses in the crust.
  • Strata: Layers. Successive strata are separated by a bedding plane.
  • Subduction zone: Region where a plate descends under another plate.
  • Tertiary activity: Services such as transport, banking or retail.
  • Terranes: Upper skin of subducting plates, where there is an accumulation of material.
  • Tectonic:The deformation forces acting on the earth's crust.
  • Tectonic Cycle: The movement of the plates and the resulting effects of these movements.
  • Thrust fault: Pressure which pushes rock forward and increases the width of a mountain.
  • Tiltmeters: Instrument used to detect ground swelling/movement.
  • Tombolo: Deposition landform between land and island.
  • Topography: Shape of the surface, including relief and features.
  • True North: All lines of longitude are true north.
  • Turlough: Seasonal lake due to the water line variations.
  • Tsunami: A large sea wave caused by an earthquake. Tidal wave.
  • Urban: Relating to a city or densely populated area.
  • Vent: Opening in the crust through which volcanic material erupts.
  • Volcanic arc: A line of volcanoes along a plate margin above a subduction zone.
  • Volcanic stages: Active, extinct and dormant.
  • Volcanic plugs: When lava cools in the vent. Made of basalt rock.
  • Volcano: A vent in the crust through which magma and associated gases and ash erupt.
  • Volcanology: Study of volcanoes, lava, magma and related matters.

     

  • Weather: The day to day condition of the atmosphere.
  • Weather front: Boundary between two air masses.
  • Weathering: The breakdown of material through biological, chemical or mechanical means.
  • Yardangs: Rock ridge caused by wind erosion, parallel to prevailing wind.
  • Zeugens: Rock perpendicular to the prevailing wind.

Other terms

  • BMW: Borders, Midlands and Western Region (of Ireland)
  • CFP: Common Fisheries Policy
  • CFSP: Common Foreign and Security Policy
  • EEC: European Economic Community
  • ECSC: European Coal and Steel Community
  • EMU: Economic and Monetary Union
  • ETA: Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (Separatist group in Spain)
  • EU: European Union
  • FRG: Federal Republic of Germany
  • GDA: Greater Dublin Area
  • GDR German Democratic Republic
  • NAD: North Atlantic Drift: (warm oceanic current)
  • NDP: National Development Plan. It has regions for the administration of the Regional
  • Authority Areas plan called Borders, Midlands and Western Region (BMW) and Southern and Eastern Region.
  • NSS: National Spatial Strategy
  • SEM: Single European Market
Free Sample Answers
Statistics

Geography Leaving Cert Statistics

 
In 2012 a total of 20142 students took geography at Leaving Cert . 
 
8.4% of students got an A
28.4% of students got a B
37.2% of students got a C
23% of students got a D
3% of students failed
Exam Breakdown

Past Exam Breakdown Higher Level

Geography Leaving Cert Higher  
PART ONE – SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS – 80 MARKS
Attempt TEN questions
PART TWO –  STRUCTURED and ESSAY QUESTIONS – 320 MARKS
SECTION 1 - CORE You MUST attempt TWO questions: ONE from Patterns and Processes in the Physical Environment AND ONE from Regional Geography
           
YEAR 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006
Section A Part One Part one Part one Part one Part one
  Surface Processes Subduction Zone Earthquake Structure of the Earth Rainfall and Run-off
  Ordnance Survey Map Ordnance Survey Extract Ordnance Survey Map Ordnance Survey Map Employment Structure
  Types of Region Aerial Photograph & Ordnance Survey Types of Region Energy Consumption Earthquakes
  Aerial Photograph and Ordnance Survey Map Aerial Photograph Glacial Landforms Urban Population Growth Weather Maps
  Glacial Landforms Satellite Interpretation Aerial Photograph Concept of a Region Landforms
  Weather Chart Landforms Land-use Coastal Landforms Weathering
  Land-use Types of Regions in Ireland IRELAND'S CLIMATE Aerial Photograph Ordnance Survey map
  Location on the Aerial Photograph Coastal Landforms Faultlines Atlantic Weather Chart Regions
  Rock Type Rock Types Ordnance Survey Extract Population Pyramids Cross-section (OS maps)
  Satellite Interpretation Landforms Switzerland Slope Types Photograph Interpretation
  Irish Fishery Statistics Ireland – Population by Age, 2006 Street Survey Drainage Systems Aerial Photograph
  Graphical Interpretation Atlantic Weather Charts Landforms Ordnance Survey Maps Glacial Landforms
    Part Two Part Two Part Two Part Two
PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  1.Ordnance Survey Map 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY MAP 1 ROCK CYCLE:
  Landform Development PLATE MARGINS LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT PLATE BOUNDARIES LANDFORMS & ROCK TYPE
  Rocks LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT HUMAN INTERACTION WEATHERING HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ROCK CYCLE
  2.Karst Landscape 2. CRUSTAL PLATES 2. SEA FLOOR SPREADING 2. PLATE TECTONICS 2 COASTAL LANDFORMS
  Folding ROCKS VULCANICITY LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT
  Human Interaction HUMAN INTERACTION KARST LANDSCAPES INTERACTION WITH ROCK CYCLE HUMAN INTERACTION
  3.Earthquakes 3. THE ROCK CYCLE 3. ROCK TYPE 3. SATELLITE IMAGES 3 STRUCTURES OF DEFORMATION
  Human Interaction LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT ROCK TYPE AND LANDSCAPE STRUCTURES OF DEFORMATION PLATE TECTONICS
  Karst Landscape HUMAN INTERACTION EARTHQUAKES HUMAN INTERACTION VOLCANOES
    REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY
  4.Irish Regions 4. THE CONCEPT OF REGION 4. IRISH REGIONS 4. IRISH REGIONS 4 .EUROPEAN UNION UNEMPLOYMENT
  Economic Activities PRIMARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES ECONOMIC PROCESSES MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
  Culture HUMAN PROCESSES URBAN REGIONS PRIMARY ACTIVITIES URBAN GROWTH
  5.Irish Unemployment 5. IRISH REGIONS 5. ENERGY 5. CONCEPT OF A REGION 5. NON-IRISH EUROPEAN REGIONS
  Urban Regions EUROPEAN UNION TERTIARY ACTIVITIES SECONDARY ACTIVITIES CONTINENTAL/SUBCONTINENTAL REGION
  Agriculture TERTIARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY CULTURAL DIFFERENCES CULTURAL DIFFERENCES CULTURE
  6.European Regions 6. CONTINENTAL / SUB-CONTINENTAL REGION 6. NON-IRISH REGIONS 6. NON-IRISH REGIONS EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION
  Irish Regions URBAN GROWTH IRELAND URBAN GROWTH TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
  European Regions SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION PRIMARY ACTIVITIES  
SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES
Patterns and Processes in Economic Activities
  7.Environmental Impact 7.ENERGY IN IRELAND 7.EU UNEMPLOYMENT RATES – JULY 2007 7.GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT 7.GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
  Multinational Companies ORDNANCE SURVEY ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT SECONDARY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES
  Globalisation DEVELOPING ECONOMIES DEVELOPING ECONOMIES LOCAL & GLOBAL INTERESTS INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
  8.Economic Development 8.HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX 8.AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 8.EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE 8.ORDNANCE SURVEY MAP
  Developed Economy MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES ORDNANCE SURVEY MAP LOCAL AND GLOBAL INTERESTS
  Conflicts of Interest ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GLOBALISATION & MNCs DEVELOPING ECONOMIES
  9.Ordnance Survey Map and the Transport Network 9.AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 9.ECONOMIC SECTORS 9.AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 9.EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE
  European Union Policy ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL INTERESTS EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES SERVICE INDUSTRIES MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES
  Sustainable Development EUROPEAN UNION  GLOBAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES FOSSIL FUELS
    PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
  10.Population 10.Birth Rates 10.WORLD POPULATION GROWTH 10.WORLD HUNGER 10. POPULATION STRUCTURE PYRAMIDS - JAPAN
  Migration and Ireland SETTLEMENT PATTERNS URBAN FUNCTIONS URBAN FUNCTIONS TRAFFIC CONGESTION
  Historic Settlement DYNAMICS OF SETTLEMENT POPULATION DENSITY AND DISTRIBUTION OVERPOPULATION URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  11.Dynamics of Settlement 11. URBANISATION 11. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 11. FERTILITY RATES 11 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH
  Urban Problems PROBLEMS IN CITIES ARTIFICIAL LAND-USE - 1990 TO 2000 HISTORIC SETTLEMENT URBAN GROWTH
  Developing World Cities OVER-POPULATION MIGRATION URBAN CENTRES CHANGING LAND USE
  12.Population Change 12. Aerial Photographs 12. POPULATION 12. Aerial Photographs 12 MIGRATION
  Migration MIGRATION CENTRAL PLACE THEORY URBAN LAND USE OVER-POPULATION
  Central Place URBAN LAND USE URBAN FUTURE POPULATION MOVEMENT HISTORIC SETTLEMENT
SECTION 3 - OPTIONS
  Global Interdependence Global Interdependence Global Interdependence Global Interdependence Global Interdependence
  Geoecology Geoecology Geoecology Geoecology Geoecology
  Culture and Identity Culture and Identity The Atmosphere-Ocean Environment Culture and Identity Culture and Identity

 

Past Exam Breakdown Ordinary Level

The other questions, from 2 to 18, are laid out in FOUR sections. These are Physical Geography, Social
PART ONE – SHORT-ANSWER QUESTIONS – 80 MARKS
Attempt TEN questions
PART TWO – STRUCTURED QUESTIONS – 300 MARKS
Candidates must attempt THREE questions, as follows:
• Two questions from Section 1 [Questions 1 to 6]
• One question from Section 2 [Questions 7 to 12]
 
Year 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006
Section A Part One Part one Part one Part one Part one
  Cross-section of the Earth Coastal Landforms Glaciation Plate Tectonics Glaciation
  Ireland’s Climate Plate Tectonics Fishing in Ireland Karst Regions Coastal Features
  Regions Maps and Photographs Physical Features on Maps and Photographs Marine Processes Volcanoes
  Volcanic Landforms Limestone Features Ordnance Survey Map European Regions Satellite Imagery
  Ordnance Survey Map Ordnance Survey Maps Ordnance Survey Map Ordnance Survey Map Rock types
  Ordnance Survey Map Oil Prices Volcanoes Aerial Photograph Ordnance Survey Map
  Aerial Photograph and Ordnance Survey Map Aerial Photograph European Regions Weather Charts Ordnance Survey map
  Karst Landscape Physical features Aerial Photograph Energy Consumption in Ireland Aerial Photograph
  Coastal and Glacial Features Weather Charts Weather Maps Physical Features on Maps and Photographs Rivers
  World’s Religions Irish Population Figures. Population Dynamics Earthquakes Ireland
  Satellite Images Ordnance Survey Map Physical features Ireland’s Climate Regions
  River Landforms Economic Activities Satellite Images Landforms Features of Erosion
PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT    
  Part Two Part Two Part Two Part Two Part Two
  1. Plate Boundaries PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT
  Surface Processes 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT 1. ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT 1 ROCK CYCLE:
  Human Interaction with the Rock Cycle Surface Processes SURFACE PROCESSES SURFACE PROCESSES LANDFORMS & ROCK TYPE
  2.Ordnance Survey Map Volcanoes HUMAN INTERFERENCE HUMAN INTERFERENCE HUMAN INTERACTION WITH ROCK CYCLE
  Earthquakes 2. Karst Landscape 2. Plate Tectonics 2. MECHANICAL WEATHERING 2 COASTAL LANDFORMS
  Human Interaction Rock Type Earthquake ROCK TYPE LANDFORM DEVELOPMENT
  3.Mass Movement and Weathering HUMAN INTERACTION Impact of Earthquakes HUMAN INTERACTION HUMAN INTERACTION
  Rocks 3. Earthquakes 3. Rock Cycle 3. HEIGHT OF VOLCANOES 3 STRUCTURES OF DEFORMATION
  Weathering Fold Mountains Karst Regions PLATE TECTONIC THEORY PLATE TECTONICS
    Plate Tectonics Karst Regions EARTHQUAKES VOLCANOES
REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY:
  4.Map Skills 4. Ireland – Regions 4. Ireland - Regions  4. IRELAND - REGIONS 4 .EUROPEAN UNION UNEMPLOYMENT
  Agriculture in Ireland European Region IRISH REGIONS IRISH REGIONS MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
  Tourism Urban Regions in Ireland Tourism in Regions EUROPEAN REGIONS URBAN GROWTH
  5.European Union Policy 5. European Union Members 5. Map Skills 5. TRANSPORT IN IRELAND 5. NON-IRISH EUROPEAN REGIONS
  European Region Tourism in Ireland European Regions EUROPEAN REGIONS CONTINENTAL/SUBCONTINENTAL REGION
  Urban Regions Continental/Sub-Continental regions Manufacturing Industry NON-EUROPEAN CONTINENTAL/SUB-CONTINENTAL REGIONS CULTURE
  6.Ireland - Regions 6. Tourism in Europe 6. Visitors to ireland 6. EMPLOYMENT IN IRELAND 6. EUROPEAN UNION EXPANSION
  Continental / Sub-Continental Regions Cultural Regions Irish Regions TYPES OF REGIONS TERTIARY ACTIVITIES
  European Expansion and Ireland European Regions Primary Activities CULTURE WITHIN REGIONS  
SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES SECTION 2 - ELECTIVES
  PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES Patterns and Processes in Economic Activities Patterns and Processes in Economic Activities Patterns and Processes in Economic Activities Patterns and Processes in Economic Activities
  7.Statistics 7.Ordnance Survey Map 7. Ireland’s Trading Partners 7.ORDNANCE SURVEY 7.GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT
  Developing Economies Fossil Fuels and Global Warming ORDNANCE SURVEY EXTRACT MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES EUROPEAN UNION POLICIES
  Multinational Companies European Union Policies Multi-National Companies [MNC] LOCATION OF INDUSTRY INDUSTRIAL LOCATION
  8.Ordnance Survey Map 8.Fish Catches 8.Ordnance Survey Map 8.HUMAN DEVELOPMENT 8.ORDNANCE SURVEY MAP
  Acid Rain MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES Renewable Energy in Ireland. EUROPEAN UNION LOCAL AND GLOBAL INTERESTS
  Economic Activities and Conflict Renewable Resources The Environment DEVELOPING ECONOMIES DEVELOPING ECONOMIES
  9. Economic Development 9. Statistics 9.Economies of countries 9.GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS 9.EMPLOYMENT STRUCTURE
  Aerial Photograph Ordnance Survey World Economies GLOBAL WARMING MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES
  Ireland and the European Union Developing Economies The European Union ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES FOSSIL FUELS
  PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT PATTERNS AND PROCESSES IN THE HUMAN ENVIRONMENT
  10.Population Structure 10. Aerial Photograph 10.Population in Ireland 10.LAND USE 10. POPULATION STRUCTURE PYRAMIDS - JAPAN
  Migration Migration Ordnance Survey Map DEVELOPMENT OF TOWNS TRAFFIC CONGESTION
  Settlement Patterns Urban Sprawl Migration TRAFFIC CONGESTION URBAN DEVELOPMENT
  11.Population Dynamics 11. Population Dynamics 11. AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH 11. POPULATION 11 AERIAL PHOTOGRAPH
  Development of Towns Population Growth Urban Studies MIGRATION URBAN GROWTH
  Growth of Cities in the Developing World Development of Towns – Ordnance Map Land Use Models MIGRANTS CHANGING LAND USE
  12.Land Use in Cities 12. Population Density 12. Population change 12. POPULATION STRUCTURE 12 MIGRATION
  Over-population Traffic Congestion Population Pyramids URBAN SPRAWL OVER-POPULATION
  Changing Urban Functions Ageing Population Traffic Problems ORDNANCE SURVEY HISTORIC SETTLEMENT

 

Paper Layout

Geography

Marks: 400
Answer 14 / 14 Questions
Time Allocated: 3 hours

Exam Structure

Marks: 400

Time Allocated: 2 hours 50 minutes

The paper consists of three parts.
 
Part 1- Short Questions carries 80 marks and consists of short questions students must answer ten out of the twelve questions asked. Each question carries 8 marks.
 
It is advised that students should spend no more than 25 minutes on Section 1.
 
Part 2 - Structured and essay questions. This section carries 320 marks.
 
You must attempt the Short Questions in Part 1 and FOUR questions, as follows:
                   -TWO questions from Section 1: CORE
                   -ONE question from Section 2: Elective
                   -ONE question from Section 3: Option (Higher Level only)
 
Section 1: Core - Physical Geography - Questions 1,2 and 3. Each question carries 80 marks. You must answer only ONE of these.
 
Section 1: Core - Regional Geography  - Questions 4,5 and 6. Each question carries 80 marks. You must answer only ONE of these.
 
Each of these questions has a: 
                Part A  20 marks
                Part B  30 Marks
                Part C  30 Marks
 
Section 2: Electives - The electives include the following:
 
                                      patterns and processes in Economic Activities
                                      Questions 7  or 8  or 9
 
                                      patterns and processes in the Human Environment
                                      Questions 10  or 11  or 12
 
Students must answer:

                                     ONE question on Economic Activities. OR
                                     ONE question on Human Environment
 
                                  Each of these questions in has a:
                                                 Part A 20 marks
                                                 Part B 30 Marks  
                                                 Part C 30 Marks
 
Section 3: Options - Higher Level only
 
                    Students must answer ONE question from questions 13-24.
                    Students choose ONE question from ONE topic only:
 
                                                 Topic: Global Interdependence (Qs 13, 14, 15)
 
                                                 Topic: Geoecology (Qs 16, 17, 18)
 
                                                 Topic: Culture and Identity (Qs 19, 20, 21)
 
                                                 Topic: The Atmosphere – Ocean Environment (Qs 22, 23, 24)
 
“N.B. It is better to discuss three or four aspects of the theme in some detail, rather than to give a superficial treatment of a large number of points. Each question carries 80 marks.”

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